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西十高铁前期设计获批 将完成西安—武汉2小时速达******\

  西十高铁是国家中远期铁路线路图整体规划银川市至武汉高铁的关键构成部分,起自西安核心区西安涿州东站,向东南方导线穿越重生秦岭山脉,经渭南和十堰两市,连接不仅有的十堰东站,与完工的汉十高铁相连,抵达武汉市,完成西安和武汉市传送数据,完工后西安和武汉市可完成21天迅速顺通。

  西十高铁新创建正线总长255.7千米,在其中陕西省地区169.4千米,湖北省地区86.3公里,设计方案车速350公里。全程经行黄河山间盆地及秦岭山山坡地,联接关中平原与长江中下游,先后通过西安市灞桥区,长安区,蓝田县,商洛商州区,山阳县,十堰市郧西县,郧阳区,张湾区。共设西安东,周至,渭南西,山阳,漫川关,郧西,十堰东(不仅有经营)7处地铁站。该新项目全程新创建桥隧全长242.9千米,桥隧比较高达94.9%,隧道占路线总长的78.5%,超过十公里的隧道有5座。全程较长的隧道为22.9千米的秦岭山马白山隧道,汉江大桥跨径420米,是中国第一座梁桁组成构成的高铁动车斜拉桥。

  为将西十高铁打导致一条技术革新,生态环境保护共享发展的绿色高铁,西安局集团和西成客专陕西省企业积极主动融洽,促进西十高铁环境危害点评汇报立即审批,明确西安涿州东站,渭南西站工程规模及实施意见;充分发挥行业规范优点,积极开展关键桥隧方案设计,尤其是对秦岭山马白山隧道,西岭隧道等成长隧道单洞改双洞计划方案开展了优化科学研究,从经营视角明确提出开发技术设计方案提议,为西十高铁前期设计获准确立了牢固基础。

  伴随着此次前期设计文档的审批,西十高铁西安至十堰段预估年之内动工基本建设。该新项目完工后,将产生西安至武汉市间的方便快捷高铁动车安全通道,对更改大西北至华东,华南地区,赣闽等地经郑西-郑武高铁“转角”绕道的布局,针对落实“长三角城市群”和“一带一路战略”等国家战略定位和“一带一路”基本建设,提升关中平原城市圈与湘江中间城市圈联络,健全国家高速铁路网合理布局,促进秦巴山区乡村振兴,加速沿途旅游业发展和社會是社会经济发展具备关键的实际意义。

  华商报新闻记者 毛蜜娜 报道员 周博伦 杨佐华 郭寅虎。

UK Supreme Court rejects gender******

Five judges at Britain's Supreme Court have rejected a legal challenge against a government policy not to allow gender-neutral passports.。

Christie Elan-Cane, who does not identify as either male or female, argued that Britain's passport application process was "inherently discriminatory."

Individuals only have a choice of "male" or "female" on the application, with no option to put "X" for "unspecified" – an alternative introduced in several other countries.。

But the Supreme Court yesterday unanimously dismissed the appeal, ruling that a person's identity could be confirmed using the form and checking it against other official documents.。

That included birth, adoption or gender recognition certificates, said judge Robert Reed in the ruling.。

"It is therefore gender recognized for legal purposes and recorded in those documents which is relevant."

The case was brought on the grounds that the government breached legal rights to a private life and not to face gender or sex discrimination.。

The judges, though, said the lack of a gender-neutral option "does not unjustifiably breach articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights."

Elan-Cane, who has campaigned on the issue for 25 years, had earlier lost cases in lower courts. The activist, who uses the pronouns "per/perself," said the government and courts were "on the wrong side of history."

"This is not the end," the campaigner wrote on Twitter, promising to take the case to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.。

Countries including Canada, Australia, Denmark, Germany, Malta, Nepal and Pakistan all now issue passports with options other than male and female.。

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(CIIE) Feature: Timor Leste explores Chinese market at import expo******

SHANGHAI, Nov. 7 (Xinhua) -- In the huge yet crowded exhibition hall at the fourth China International Import Expo (CIIE), nearly everyone passing the national pavilion of Timor Leste is attracted by the fragrance of coffee and a Baymax-looking coffee-making robot swiftly moving its metallic arms.。

"Timor Leste has the best Kopi Luwak of the world, and it should be matched with the best coffee-making techniques," said Bei Lei, the pavilion's executive curator. It takes the robot around three minutes to brew a cup of coffee, with the whole process remotely controllable.。

The coffee industry is regarded as an economic pillar for Timor Leste, a country with a land area of some 14,800 square km and a population of 1.3 million. Ultra-high standards for bean-picking and processing have made the organic Kopi Luwak a signal product of the country, with annual production limited to about 800 kg.。

Timor Leste has been an active participant in the CIIE since 2018. Over the past four years, the event has helped raise the profile of its Kopi Luwak in China, where a growing share of its 1.4 billion people are becoming coffee lovers. Since last year's Expo, Kopi Luwak, as well as other types of specialty coffee from Timor Leste, won orders worth 5 million U.S. dollars.。

According to Bei, Chinese buyers have "substantially improved the lives of farmers in Timor Leste." The country's farming industry was heavily impacted by COVID-19 and a devastating flood in April. It was the orders from China that offered more coffee-related job opportunities to farmers.。

To express their gratitude, local farmers spent months weaving 100 pieces of Tais cloth, a traditional textile with a symbolic meaning of respect, to present to "the distinguished Chinese customers" at the fourth CIIE, said Bei.。

The busy coffee-making robot at the pavilion wears the colorful Tais on its shoulders. Developed by the Beijing OrionStar Technology Co., Ltd, the robot is capable of bringing out the best flavor of the coffee, while ensuring that every cup tastes the same, said Yang Xinbo, a senior product manager at the company.。

Yang said the CIIE also provides his company with a great platform for display and cooperation, as the robot and the high-quality Kopi Luwak bring out the best of each other. "We are planning to establish long-term business ties and sell the combination to staff canteens and self-service cafes," he added.。

China has been encouraging and assisting the least developed countries to join the CIIE, the world's first national-level dedicated import expo. The exhibiting area of Timor Leste has been expanded from a lonely shelf to two standard booths spanning a total of 18 square meters and is free of site fees.。

This is a preferential policy that applies to all national pavilions of the least developed countries. According to the CIIE Bureau, 90 companies from 33 such countries are participating in this year's Expo, enriching the varieties of exhibits as well as the vibe of cultural diversity.。

Apart from the annual six-day event, Timor Leste also enjoys the year-round spillover effect of the CIIE. The country has set up two pavilions inside the pilot free trade zone in Shanghai and in the city of Hangzhou, allowing for wider and deeper cooperation between the two countries.。

Bei said that the CIIE has become well-known among the people of Timor Leste. "They have truly felt China's openness and its role as a big country through the grand event, and now people look forward to it every year," she added. Enditem。

专家谈鹤岗房子白菜价:不是个例,收缩型城市要学会做收缩规划******

原标题:专家谈鹤岗房子白菜价:不是个例,收缩型城市要学会做收缩规划

房子变成“白菜价”,东北四线城市鹤岗房价跌破1000元

一套住房只要一万多元,黑龙江地级市鹤岗的“白菜价”楼房迅速刷屏,这背后,折射了什么问题?

4月18日,在上海社会科学院经济研究所主办的“区域经济一体化与全国统一市场建设学术研讨会”上,第一财经记者就鹤岗楼盘现象、收缩型城市,以及老工业区面临的转型问题专访了辽宁省社科院副院长梁启东。

梁启东认为,“白菜价”住房不单单是鹤岗的个例,而是东北地区、西北地区等老工业区普遍面临的情况。在老工业区,除了中心城市房地产稍微上涨,很多三四线城市都存在类似现象。投资骤减是房地产大幅下滑的直接原因,但梁启东认为根本原因在于人口流失和城市收缩。

也因此,梁启东认为,政策制定者、城市管理者应该适当调整城市化战略,学会做“收缩”的规划。老工业区也需要找到新的发展路径。

“白菜价”房子背后是人口收缩

“在房地产投资方面,东北地区从2008/2009年后开始了大规模城镇化,实际就是造新城。随着整体投资规模的大幅下滑,房地产投资也随之下滑。像铁岭、阜新这类三四线城市前几年建的房子直到现在还没卖完,在这些城市也基本看不到新建的楼盘。”梁启东说。

第一财经记者通过查询网上房屋销售平台,也确实发现铁岭、阜新等三四线城市在售房源基本都是建于2016年之前。

鹤岗“白菜价”房子的背后,是人口外流、城市收缩。梁启东分析了东北老工业区人口减少原因:

首先,老工业区都有人才使用的体制机制问题和人口外流问题。梁启东说,现在的情况是,如果一个县城考出去100个大学生,能回到县城工作的不到10个人,有能力的年轻人走了,他们下一代也会离开县城,他们的父母也会去子女就业的城市帮忙带孩子或者外出养老。并且,对于人口流出地区而言,其实际人口数量还可能低于户籍人口数量,因为不少在外打工的人或者老年人,仍会保留本地户籍,在本地拿养老金,却在外地消费。

其次,老工业区都存在低生育率问题。东北很多农村地区也有众多国有企业——国有农场、国有盐场,都严格执行计划生育政策。

梁启东曾在农村做过副乡长,抓过计划生育工作。他说,东北地区生育率长期低于国家平均水平,已经进入深度老龄化阶段。辽宁省2018年统计公报显示,目前辽宁省65岁人口已经达到661.3万人,占15.17%,属全国最高。

“整个东北常住人口增量逐年下降,在全国排名倒数;人口出生率也是全国倒数。东北除了四大副省级城市以外,不少城市每年都流失一两万人,以抚顺为例,2012年末人口数量是219万人,2017年末则是213万人,5年时间自然减少了6万人,这是不可逆的。人口流失了,消费就降低了。下一步城市管理者要学会做收缩型城市的规划和研究。”梁启东说。

要学会制定收缩型城市规划

国家发展改革委近日发布的《2019年新型城镇化重点建设任务》,首次提出“收缩型城市”概念,指出“收缩型中小城市要瘦身强体,转变惯性的增量规划思维,严控增量、盘活存量,引导人口和公共资源向城区集中”。

梁启东认为老工业区的城市管理者也应该适当调整城镇化战略,从扩张型转型为扩张型和收缩型结合的战略,例如东北的大连、长春、哈尔滨等中心城市还在扩张,但很多三四线小城市已经不可避免地走向收缩。

梁启东建议,以交通主轴为核心,集中发展大中型城市,在偏远地区、传统的生态脆弱区、生态涵养区、小城镇、村屯这些人口逐渐萎缩的地方,采取收缩型的战略。

如何推进收缩型战略?梁启东认为有五点:

一是要在城市规划上收缩,不要铺摊子,要善于做小、做精、做出质量;

二是产业上收缩,向高质量方向发展转型。当煤炭资源枯竭时,这类产业就要收缩,建议与当地产业结合搞绿色产业;

三是收缩型城市以生态保护为主,降低政府考核指标,对地方官员要实施分类考核,除了经济效益指标外,可以考核生态指标、社会稳定指标、应急管理指标、安全指标等;

四是基础设施建设收缩,不能追求老工业区、西部地区、山区都实现电网改造、水利工程、高速公路、通信等大型基础设施全覆盖;

此外,梁启东建议对某些地区实施灵活的计划生育政策,比如在东北设立计划生育特区。辽宁省的调查情况显示,在完全放开二胎指标的情况下,有生育二孩意愿的家庭不到20%。

老工业区发展要开对药方

造成目前东北老工业区人口流失、城市收缩的根本原因是经济下滑,背后有深层的体制机制问题。

梁启东说,“东北老工业基地存在体制机制僵化、市场化程度不够的问题,这反映在国有企业改革滞后上:一是国企改革进展比较慢,现在东北还存在上世纪90年代的‘大锅饭’、‘铁交椅’;二是老工业区有大量的历史遗留问题,老国企背了很多包袱,它们有自己的教育系统、托儿所、小学、中学,养老院、农场、公安处,不是不想改,而是动不了。”

由此,东北也出现了民营经济边缘化的问题。梁启东谈到,东北三省民营经济中真正有能力、有水平的不多。在全国500强的民营企业中,2003年东北有18家,2018年下降到9家,吉林有2家、黑龙江有1家、辽宁有6家入围。但在浙江省,单单一个杭州市就有36家入围。

对待东北老工业区的现状,梁启东认为首先要进行大力度改革,包括国有企业改革、和央企改革对接、更大力度地推进民营经济发展,以及优化营商环境。

其次是用创新驱动发展。“老工业区的传统产业和传统动能衰退了,新动能还没发展起来,正处于新旧动能交替、青黄不接期。所以老工业区振兴的要义,就是培育新产业,培育新动能。西北、东北的老工业区有40多年时间了,平时加点油、加点水,没换过发动机,现在老工业区振兴得换发动机了。” 梁启东说。

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